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  • Ear canal tumors can be benign or malignant. Diagnosis is typically via fine needle aspiration or tissue biopsy. The treatment of choice for ear canal tumors is surgical excision. For benign tumors, complete surgical removal is curative. With malignant tumors, a CT scan is often performed prior to surgery to determine how invasive the tumor is and enable surgical planning. Total ear canal ablation and bulla osteotomy (TECA-BO) is the most common surgical option. Radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be pursued.

  • These are tumors arising from structures within the eye. The most common intraocular tumors originate from the melanin producing cells (discussed in a separate handout).

  • Ocular melanomas in cats may be benign or malignant. Malignant tumors, called diffuse iris melanomas, present as multifocal iridial pigmentation, and benign tumors, called limbal melanomas, present as a discernable limbal mass. The diagnosis of these tumors is in large part by clinical signs and tumor appearance. Treatment for diffuse iris melanomas may include close monitoring, laser surgery, iridectomy, and enucleation. As some iris melanomas progress slowly (over years) intervention may not be required for some time. Metastasis has been reported in about 60% of cases of diffuse iris melanoma, with spread most commonly to the regional lymph nodes, kidneys, liver, and lungs, but unlike other cancers, metastatic disease may not become evident for years. Treatment for limbal melanomas may include close monitoring, and surgery (with or without grafting) sometimes combined with cryosurgery, laser surgery, or radiation therapy. Enucleation is an option if the treatment is unsuccessful or the tumor regrows. Histopathology is always recommended for a definitive diagnosis.

  • Ocular melanomas, although rare, are the most common eye tumor in dogs. Ocular melanomas can originate from the uvea or the limbus. About 80% of uveal melanomas (and all limbal melanomas) are benign. The rate of metastasis is less than 5%. Ocular melanomas are at least in part heritable and caused by one or more genetic mutations. Uveal melanomas can become discrete, raised pigmented masses that damage the intraocular structures of the eye and cause hyphema, uveitis, and glaucoma. Limbal melanomas can invade the cornea and cause keratitis, grow outwards and cause conjunctivitis, and penetrate and damage the eye as with uveal tumors. Treatment for ocular melanomas may include close monitoring, surgery, iridectomy, laser surgery, cryotherapy, radiation therapy, and enucleation, depending on the type and size of the tumor and how it is affecting the eye. All tissues removed should be sent for histopathology for a definitive diagnosis. The overall prognosis is good.

  • A 'tumor' is a lump. Some tumors are cancerous and some are benign. There are several different types of tumors that occur in the tissues around the eye. Many of these tumors have physical effects on the eye, causing soreness, redness and weeping. The most common treatment for tumors around the eye is surgical removal of the lump.

  • Mast cell tumors are the most common skin tumor found in ferrets. They can also be found internally on the spleen. They arise from a cell type called a mast cell. In dogs and less so in cats, these tumors can vary from benign to highly malignant.

  • Fibrosarcomas are a type of soft tissue sarcoma that is common in dogs. They are most often found on the limbs and trunk of the body, but can also be found in the nasal cavity or mouth. They usually originate from the connective tissue of the skin and beneath the skin, but occasionally from the bone, causing a primary form of bone cancer. Older dogs and certain breeds (especially large breeds) are at greater risk. The clinical signs vary in relation to the size and location of the tumor, and its impact on the surrounding tissues. Fibrosarcomas are often painful. The diagnosis is most often based on tissue biopsy. Surgery is the treatment of choice for fibrosarcomas, with or without radiation and/or chemotherapy. Most tumors recur after surgery because of the degree of local invasiveness. Only about 10% of fibrosarcomas metastasize. With proper and prompt treatment, favorable outcomes are possible.

  • This tumor is a disordered and purposeless overgrowth of modified sebaceous (sweat) glands known as the hepatoid glands. These glands only occur in dogs.

  • There are four major hormonal diseases in ferrets. This handout covers adrenal gland disease and diabetes mellitus. Adrenal gland disease occurs in a large number of ferrets in North America, while diabetes mellitus is a rare, but an important problem.

  • An insulinoma is a tumor that involves the beta cells of the pancreas. Beta cells are the cells that produce the hormone insulin. Insulinomas are surprisingly common in ferrets.